A case for states to reimagine urban governance


An urban centre is a comparatively giant, dense and everlasting settlement of heterogenous people. Such centres present a big market for varied items and providers. With the provision of many people with numerous abilities and economies of scale, in addition they promote industries. Their excessive inhabitants density brings down per-capita price of offering providers resembling training, well being, roads, water provide and sanitation, and even legislation and order.No doubt urbanisation creates its personal social issues — the nameless, superficial and transitory nature of human relations. But a big heterogeneous inhabitants from completely different elements of the nation, with numerous languages, religions and castes, residing side-by-side additionally helps to break down inflexible social buildings and promotes nationwide integration.India has had an ambivalent angle in direction of urbanisation for a very long time. Mohandas Gandhi, in his 1909 guide, Hind Swaraj, was all in favour of idyllic self-sufficient villages, and fewer than keen about know-how, railways and urbanisation. By Independence, he had modified his views. Yet, nostalgia about self-sufficient villages to the exclusion of well-planned vibrant cities remained for a long time.India paid scant consideration to urban areas till the late Nineteen Nineties. GoI’s deal with urban India till then was in areas resembling curbing unearned increment in urban land values, and legal guidelines to impose ceilings on possession and possession of vacant urban land. The 1997 urban employment programme Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), the 2001 housing programme Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) and the 2005 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) have been the primary steps on the Union degree in direction of deliberate urbanisation. There have been no notable initiatives at scale on the state authorities degree.Despite such benign neglect, India has urbanised at a gradual tempo. The urban share of its inhabitants went up from 26% in 1991 to 28% in 2001, and to 31% in 2011. With hidden urbanisation on the peripheries of cities, these figures understate the true extent of urbanisation. The World Bank put the share of India’s inhabitants residing in areas with ‘urban-like’ options at 55% in 2010.Census 2011 recognized 473 urban agglomerations, that are contiguous urban settlements comprising not less than one urban native authorities of not less than 20,000 individuals, in addition to different native governments and even census cities (villages or elements of villages displaying urban traits). 53 of those 471 agglomerations have one million-plus inhabitants, and comprise 40% of India’s urban inhabitants. Think of Brihanmumbai, National Capital Region (NCR) and Greater Kolkata. Such agglomerations with multiple million folks have grown from solely 5 cities in 1951 — Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai — to 53 in 2011.Without targeted consideration, India’s urbanisation has been chaotic in nature. Quality of infrastructure and providers can be an important determinant of the cities to leverage agglomeration economies. Basic services resembling clear air, housing, security, energy provide, water and sanitation, ease of mobility and open areas can be essential components that may decide their means to entice investments and expertise, create jobs, enhance financial productiveness and alleviate poverty. ‘Ease of living’ is, and can stay, necessary not solely as an finish in itself but in addition for ‘ease of doing business’.Integrated and coordinated governance throughout an urban agglomeration is crucial for civic facilities. Problems like air air pollution and urban flooding don’t recognise municipal boundaries. By the 74th Constitutional Amendment (Articles 243P and 243ZE), states have to designate an space with multiple million folks as metropolitan areas, and represent metropolitan planning committees in them. With inadequate progress on each these fronts, extreme spatial and practical fragmentation stays within the governance of our urban agglomerations.The fifteenth Finance Commission, in a departure from the previous, has chosen to sharpen deal with urban agglomerations. It has proposed a million-plus problem fund (MCF) of a substantive quantity of ₹38,000 crore for 50 urban agglomerations — all 53 besides the Union government-administered Chandigarh, Delhi and Srinagar — with a million-plus inhabitants. MCF is performance-linked to outcomes in water provide, sanitation and clear air. Further, the funds are allotted not for outcomes being achieved by particular person native governments in cities however by all of them collectively.Much-needed inter-agency coordination and integration over a broader metropolitan footprint is now inevitable. The entry situations of publication of on-line annual accounts, notification of ground charges for property tax and constant enhance of their collections in step with GSDP apply to them, too. MCF, thus, supplies a superb alternative for states to reimagine metropolitan governance, and realise the financial potential of their giant urban centres.(The author is member, fifteenth Finance Commission, and former chief financial adviser, GoI)

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